For Ataturk, the restructuring of society could only be achieved through serious measures like adopting a constitution (in 1924), replacement of the Arabic alphabet by Latin one, changing the way people were dressed, giving women the right to vote and the right to become a member of the Parliament.

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Turkey was the first European country living these rights to its women.

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The caliphate cast found no ground in Turkish Republic since this entity was abolished and secularism became the major rule of the young republic. In the same way, Islam was no longer the unique or official religion.

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The legal, political and governmental agencies were renewed. Radical changes in the educational system gave rise to emergence of the fresh minds. The new republic was completely modernized by Ataturk and turned into a European style nation state.

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