One of the most famous personalities of history, Alexander The Great, invaded the lands starting from Greece and stretching as far as India. During his reign he had the strong will to defeat the Persians. That is the reason why he first visited the tomb of Akhilleus in Troy to gain moral power. After he believed that he had got enough power, he fought against the Persians and gained control over the western Anatolian civilizations of Caria and others.
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head of alexander, found at pergamon, thought to be inspired by the 4th cc. bc portrait of alexander executed by the sculptor lysippos, hellenistic, first half of the 2 cc. bc. ,istanbul arch. museum
In 334-333 BC he followed the way to east, covering Perge. He did not neglect to go to the lands of Phyrigia (Gordion and Ankyra- Ankara), Cappadocia and Kilikia. He fought against Persian King Dareios III at Issos in 333 BC and was victorious. Alexander the Great reached his main aim and continued his conquests as far as India. In his stride, Alexander the Great was highly effected by Greek culture and philosophy. Thus, he tried to propagate this culture among the lands he conquered. As a result, western and eastern cultures have interacted and what emerged were fine products of art in every aspect. This in turn lead to a further melting pot of eastern and western cultures. Hellenistic Culture was a harmonious synthesis of east and west, rooted in Anatolian-Ioanian civilization.
After his death at a young age in 323 BC, there was turmoil in the lands that he conquered since he chose no successor for his empire. His generals were in conflict with each other and civil wars were naturally detrimental for the unity of the land. General Lysimachus and Seleucus tried to claim as their own western and central Anatolia but they were both unsuccessful in reaching their aims and were slain by Ptolemy Ceraunus, the king of the Seleucids, based in Antioch (Antakya) (281 BC)
The Celts were quick enough to come via Macedonia into Anatolia where they founded the Kingdom of Galatia in 279 BC. Their capital was Ancyra and they became dominant in Aegean cities. In the meantime, The Pontic Kingdom was established in Trebizond (Trabzon) and ruled over the eastern Black Sea region, some parts of Central Anatolia and Cappadoccia.
The Pergamon Empire was established by Philetairos after the troubled times following the death of Alexander the Great and became one of the important centers of Hellenistic Civilization for 150 years.Eumenes II (197-159 BC) was the leader to initiate many of the construction of important architectural work of the Hellenistic Era. The famous library having more than 200 thousand volumes, the asklepion and medical center were among the adorning constructions of this Kingdom. For Hellenistic sculpture, Pergamon also gives prominence to the Zeus and Athena Altars. In 133 BC the kingdom was taken under the rule of Roman Empire.