The invasions of the Dorians (today’s Greece) forced the Ionians and Akkadians to find themselves new lands to settle. The Ionians and Akkadians were not the only people who were escaping from the Dorian attacks; the Aiolles, too.The Ionians migrated to Anatolia in 1000 BC and within 2 hundred years they expanded to Phokakia (Foca), Erythrai (Ildiri, Cesme), Klazomenai (Urla), Teos (Sigacik), Lebedos , Klophon (Degirmendere), Ephesos (Efes), Priene (Turunclar), Myos (Afsartepe), Miletos (Milet),and Khios (Sakiz) and Samos (Sisam) (the last two now Greek). Ionians also gained colonies in France, Spain and Blacksea region. In 560-546 BC, Ionia was conqured by the Lydian King, Crouses.

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The struggle of the Ionians continued by the wars with Athena and Sparta ,but finally (378 BC) the Persians succeded in dominating the Ionian territory except the colonies. Alexander the Great was the one who subdued the Persians and became the sovereign power in the land of Ionia (334-301 BC). There was rather a limited time passed under the reign of the Pergamon Kingdom after Alexander the Great. The Romans were quick enough to take-over the land .In the Roman and succeeding Byzantine era, Ionian cities regained the reputation they had previously enjoyed.

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The Ionian Civilization made important contributions to the birth of western culture and art and which would dominate the world for centuries. 2500 years of Anatolian culture and art enabled them to develop new approaches and appreciation. The philosophers like Thales, Anximandros (575 BC), Anaximenes of Miletos (550 BC); Pythagoras of Samos (580-500 BC) and Herakleitos of Ephesus were the leading ones who are still influencing the western cultural life today.

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In terms of architectural achievements, the Ephesus Artemisian Temple was constructed in 330 BC and is also counted as one of the seven wonders of the world . Temple of Appollon in Dydma was started in 310 BC but was never completed. However, its huge remnants, today, give us a hint of grand design and we marvel at what might have been.

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It can be claimed that the foundations of Hellenic civilization is to be found in the cities of Ionia. After the Persian invasions, the Hellenistic culture of Ionia was destroyed which in return led to the flourish of Athens.

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